Information obtained during the study should be treated with the utmost care. Before starting a scientific experiment, carefully consider the forms of the protocols in which you will enter intermediate results. If these forms turned out to be imperfect, make an adjustment.

It is necessary to store the results of research in such a way that it is possible at any moment to understand all the details of the experiment, to return to them after some time and even several years later, to check them, to work through other methods and techniques. The erroneous statement that everything will remain in memory will pass some period of time and the details of the work will be erased. All the nuances should be recorded not only on paper, but also in a computer version.

The organization of the experiment should be approached seriously, so you can ask for help from a research supervisor or from older, more experienced colleagues who have already completed the dissertation defense phase, can consult other graduate students, and also get good advice from our specialists. To facilitate your preparation for practical experiments, you can recall what you were taught in the university. Perhaps, you have once had to carry out scientific tests and this can help in further work with a thesis. Think about writing a term paper or a thesis that you studied during the internship or performed in the course of your teaching work.

Often, in the thesis abstract in the short version is the full amount of research. In the abstract there are data on the number of subjects in the working group, the indicators taken from them, information on measurements, the total number of hours spent on measurements and so on.

If a scientific experiment is simple, then it is not difficult to calculate these figures at the final stage of the dissertation preparation. However, if the study is too voluminous, using several techniques, a large amount of data, indicators, then do not forget to write down such information in advance, so as not to reduce the amount of work done because of insufficiently developed memory.


Much of the scientific information is in the nature of executing judgments, i.e. judgments, not obtained by direct perception of some fragments of reality, but derived from other judgments, which, as it were, are extracted from their content. The logical means of obtaining such output knowledge is inference, i.e. a mental operation by means of which another judgment is derived from a certain number of given judgments in a certain way connected with the original one.

All conclusions can be qualified as inductive and deductive.

Such a conclusion is called deductive, in which the conclusion about a certain element of a set is made on the basis of knowledge of the general properties of the whole set.

In this regard, the deductive method of knowledge is understood as deductive reasoning. Thus, the content of deduction as a method of knowledge is the use of general scientific provisions in the study of specific phenomena.

Deduction favorably differs from other methods of cognition in that, with the truth of the original knowledge, it gives true excretory knowledge. However, it would be wrong to overestimate the scientific significance of the deductive method, because without obtaining the initial knowledge, this method can not give anything. Therefore, a scientist, first of all, needs to learn how to use induction.

Induction is usually understood as a deduction from the particular to the general, when on the basis of knowledge about a part of class objects a conclusion is drawn about the class as a whole. However, one can speak of induction in a broader sense of the word as a method of cognition, as a set of cognitive operations, as a result of which the movement of thought takes place from less general provisions to more general ones. Consequently, the difference between induction and deduction is found, above all, in the direct direction of the course of thought.

Induction (or generalization) is complete and partial. Complete induction consists in the study of each case that is included in the class of phenomena about which conclusions are drawn. This possibility is rare, since there are a lot of separate cases. Thus, we make a generalization based on the study of typical cases. But induction on the basis of limited data does not lead to universal, or widely applicable, fundamental conclusions.